Author: -KARISHMA KHAN
As we know in America there are lots of African people who live for many years. They are facing racism for their black colour, but due to time changing many laws are made to protect them and live in a better environment without racism. But in the modern era, some people hate black people till now.
Black people, why we should use this word for them just only because their colour is black or they look ugly?
We have no answer to this question because we all think these both reasons. Our mentality should go in one way we all are never thinking on both sides. Black people are not the thing to hate, they all are human beings, they all are have the same blood colour, they all are the same as us. One of the greatest man in the world who stops these racisms for black people and the only man who give all rights to the black people that is NELSON MANDELA. He is the man who resolves the disputes between black and white people. Another one is BARAK OBAMA he also takes steps towards black people matters. These two men are the greatest personalities one is the PRESIDENT of Africa and another is the PRESIDENT of America. They both have a black colour with a great mind and personality. The black colour is not the matter, the mindset should change in the modern era and we also give them to chance to prove themselves in the different activity area.
As we talked about African Americans, so we find that, one of the largest groups who live in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have non-black ancestors. As we look at the 21st century, more than 36 million black people live in a south area in America. Contributions by African Americans to the arts, education, industry, literature, politics, and much more are well represented in the vast collections of the Library of Congress. The Library’s digital collections, online exhibits, online catalogue, databases, and other online resources provide a broad range of multi-formatted digitized material available for research on the African American experience. The primary purpose of this guide is to introduce the user to digitized primary sources available online at the Library of Congress. To broaden the user’s search beyond the Library of Congress, a list of suggested external websites is included.
Racism with black people
As we look into the history we found Many Americans might not know the more polemical side of race writing in our history. The canon of African-American literature is well established. Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, James Baldwin are familiar figures. Far less so is Samuel Morton (champion of the obsolete theory of polygenesis) or Thomas Dixon (author of novels romanticizing Klan violence). It is tempting to think that the influence of those dusty polemics ebbed as the dust accumulated. But their legacy persists, freshly shaping much of our racial discourse.
“Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral,” by Phillis Wheatley (1773)
No book during the Revolutionary era stirred more debates over slavery than this first-ever book by an African-American woman. Assimilationists and abolitionists exhibited Wheatley and her poetry as proof that an “uncultivated barbarian from Africa” could be civilized, that enslaved Africans “may be refined, and join the angelic train” of European civilization and human freedom. Enslavers disagreed, and lashed out at Wheatley’s “Poems.”
* “An Address to the Inhabitants of British Settlements, on the Slavery of the Negroes in America,” by Benjamin Rush (1773)
“Notes on the State of Virginia,” by Thomas Jefferson (1785)
The author of American freedom in 1776 wrote of American slavery as a necessary evil in this book, widely regarded as the most important political portrait of the nascent United States. Jefferson indicted the “tyranny” of slavery while also supplying fellow slaveholders with a batch of prejudices to justify slavery’s rapid expansion. Blacks “are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind,” he wrote. And Wheatley is not “a poet.”
* “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano; Or, Gustavus Vassa, the African” (1789)
“Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac and Ephemeris,” by Benjamin Banneker (1792-97)
After helping to survey the District of Columbia, Banneker compiled his first almanac, replacing Wheatley’s “Poems” as abolitionists’ finest showpiece of black capability. He enclosed the almanac in a letter to Jefferson, writing, “I apprehend you will embrace every opportunity, to eradicate that train of absurd and false ideas and opinions.” Jefferson did not jump off the train, but other Americans did while reading this remarkable book.
“An Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species,” by Samuel Stanhope Smith (second edition, 1810)
The Princeton president tried to stop the polygenesis theory that the races are created unequal, stoutly defending biblical monogenesis and the notion that first humans were white. He called for physical assimilation: In a colder climate blackened skins would revert to their original white beauty; “the woolly substance” on blackheads would become “fine, straight hair” again. His racist idea of the lighter and straighter the better still demeans after all these years.
“Thoughts on the Colonization of Free Blacks,” by Robert Finley (1816)
Blacks should be freed, trained “for self-government” and returned to Africa, according to the antislavery clergyman and former student of Samuel Stanhope Smith. Finley wrote the manifesto for colonization, a cause supported by several American leaders until Lincoln’s failed schemes doomed the movement during the Civil War.
* “An Appeal From the Judgments of Great Britain Respecting the United States of America,” by Robert Walsh (1819)
“An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World,” by David Walker (1829)
This Boston abolitionist viciously assailed colonization and “Mr. Jefferson’s arguments” in the first book-length attack on the “inhuman system of slavery” by an African-American. Black seamen smuggled the appeal into chained Southern hands; community readers sounded the appeal to violently throw off the violent yoke. Walker’s ultimatum for slaveholders: Give us freedom and rights, or you will “curse the day that you ever were born!”
“Crania Americana,” by Samuel Morton (1839)
This book revived the theory of polygenesis that dominated intellectual racial discourse until the Civil War. What reviewers hailed as an “immense body of facts” were Morton’s measurements of the “mean internal capacity” of the human skulls in his renowned collection in Philadelphia, from which he concluded that whites had the “highest intellectual endowments.”
* “Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature of 1831 and 1832,” by Thomas Roderick Dew (1832), and “Thoughts on African Colonization,” by William Lloyd Garrison (1832)
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“The Narrative of the Life,” of Frederick Douglass (1845)
The gripping best seller earned Douglass international prestige and forced readers around the world to come to terms with slavery’s brutality and blacks’ freedom dreams. No other piece of antislavery literature so devastated Morton’s defence of polygenesis or John C. Calhoun’s recently popularized theory that slavery was a “positive good.”
* “The Narrative of Sojourner Truth” (1850)
“Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852)
Inflamed by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Stowe offered a fugitive slave story that made millions sympathize with slaves. Her novel — and its dramatic adaptations — turned the “hard and dominant Anglo-Saxon race” toward Christian salvation with a simple lesson: to stop enslaving quintessential Christians in all their “lowly docility of heart.” From accommodating Uncle Toms to superior mulattoes to soulful Africans, the book also popularized any number of lasting racist tropes.
* “On the Origin of Species,” by Charles Darwin (1859)
“The Principles of Biology,” by Herbert Spencer (1864)
In “Principles,” Spencer coined the term “survival of the fittest,” becoming the ultimate amplifier of Social Darwinism in the United States. Americans fell in love with his comprehensive theory of evolution, claiming that Reconstruction policies would allow inferior blacks to evolve (or assimilate) into white civilization or lose the struggle for existence. The net effect of Spencer’s Social Darwinism: the eugenics movement of the early 20th century.
* “Hereditary Genius,” by Sir Francis Galton (1869)
“The Prostrate State: South Carolina Under Negro Government,” by James Pike (1874)
This prominent New York journalist blanketed the nation with fairy tales of corrupt, incompetent, lazy Black Republican politicians. Reconstruction’s enfranchising policies were a “tragedy,” Pike wrote, nothing but “the slave rioting in the halls of his master.” His “objective” reporting caused many once sympathetic Northerners to demand a national reunion based on a white rule.
* “The Descent of Man,” by Charles Darwin (1871)
“Our Brother in Black: His Freedom and His Future,” by Atticus Haygood (1881)
In the 1880s, Southern segregationists marketed their region as the New South, among them this Methodist bishop and Emory College president. In his popular book, Haygood eased consciences that the end of Reconstruction meant the end of black rights. The New South will be as good for black folk as the old, Haygood declared, as new white Southerners would continue to civilize inferior black folk in their nicely segregated free-labour society.
* “The Plantation Negro as a Freeman,” by Philip Alexander Bruce (1889)
“Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro,” by Frederick Hoffman (1896)
Better covered than the Plessy v. Ferguson decision that year, “Race Traits” catapulted this statistician into a scientific celebrity. At the time of emancipation, blacks were “healthy in body and cheerful in mind,” Hoffman wrote. Thirty years later, the 1890 census forecasts their “gradual extinction,” due to natural immoralities and a propensity for diseases. He blazed the trail of racist ideas in American criminology when he concluded that higher black arrest rates indicated blacks committed more crimes.
* “Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases,” by Ida B. Wells (1892)
“The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan,” by Thomas Dixon (1905)
Convinced that “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” had misrepresented the South, Dixon emerged as Jim Crow’s novelist laureate. “The Clansman” was the most influential of his works, particularly after it was adapted into a popular play and D.W. Griffith’s 1915 film “The Birth of a Nation.” In Dixon’s telling, the virtuous Ku Klux Klan saved Southern whites from their “awful suffering” during Reconstruction.
* “The Souls of Black Folk,” by W.E.B. Du Bois (1903)
“Tarzan of the Apes,” by Edgar Rice Burroughs (1912)
With his racist colonial plot, Burroughs glued animals, savages, and Africa together in the American mind, and redeemed white masculinity after the first black heavyweight champion knocked it out in 1908. Forget boxing and Jack Johnson — white men embraced Tarzan, the inspiration for comic strips, 25 sequels, and dozens of motion pictures.
* “The Passing of the Great Race,” by Madison Grant (1916)
“Nigger Heaven,” by Carl Van Vechten (1926)
Van Vechten was the Harlem Renaissance’s ubiquitous white patron, a man as curiously passionate about showing off black people as zookeepers are about showing off their rare species. Through this best-selling novel, he gave white Americans a racist tour of the safari of Harlem, casting assimilated blacks in the guise of tropical exotic lands being spoiled by white developers.
* “The Weary Blues,” by Langston Hughes (1926)
“Gone with the Wind,” by Margaret Mitchell (1936)
The Pulitzer Prize-winning jewel of the plantation fiction genre, this was Americans’ second all-time favourite book behind the Bible, according to a 2014 Harris Poll. Mitchell portrays white enslavers as noble, slaves as shiftless, docile, and loyal. Mitchell did for slavery what Dixon did for Reconstruction and Burroughs for Africa.
* “Their Eyes Were Watching God,” by Zora Neale Hurston (1937) and “Native Son,” by Richard Wright (1940)
“An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy,” by Gunnar Myrdal (1944)
As Americans fought against Nazism overseas, this Swedish economist served up an encyclopedic revelation of racial discrimination in their backyards. If there was a scholarly trigger for the civil rights movement, this was it. Myrdal concluded that “a great majority” of whites would “give the Negro a substantially better deal if they knew the facts.” Segregationists seethed, and racial reformers were galvanized to show the truth of Jim Crow.
* “Race: Science and Politics,” by Ruth Benedict (revised edition, 1943)
“To Kill a Mockingbird,” by Harper Lee (1960)
This instant classic about a white lawyer defending a black man wrongly accused of rape was the “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” of the civil rights movement. “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy,” a neighbour tells the lawyer’s daughter, Scout. She’s talking about their reclusive white neighbour, Boo Radley, but the African-Americans of 1930s Alabama come across as singing spectators, thankful for the moral heroism of Atticus Finch. The white saviour remains the most popular racist character in American letters.
* “Invisible Man,” by Ralph Ellison (1952)
“The Autobiography of Malcolm X,” as told to Alex Haley (1965)
It was the manifesto for the Black Power movement, where young black saviours arose, alienated by white saviours and the slow pace of civil rights change. Malcolm wrote black pride before James Brown sang it. His ideological transformation from assimilationist to anti-white separatist to antiracist inspired millions of all races.
* “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,” by Maya Angelou (1969)
“Roots: The Saga of an American Family,” by Alex Haley (1976)
For African-Americans in the radiance of Black Power’s turn to Pan-Africanism, the thrilling and terrifying story of Kunta Kinte and his descendants arrived right on time. The best-seller inspired one of the most-watched shows in American television history. “Roots” dispatched legions of racist ideas of backward Africa, of civilizing slavery, of the contented slave, of loose enslaved women. The plantation genre of happy mammies and Sambos was gone with the wind.
* “The Declining Significance of Race,” by William Julius Wilson (1978)
“The Color Purple,” by Alice Walker (1982)
Of the black feminist classics of the period, Walker’s garnered the most prestige — a National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize — and controversy. Set in 1930s rural Georgia, the story shows a black woman finding happiness beyond abusive black patriarchs, Southern poverty, and racist whites. Steven Spielberg’s 1985 blockbuster adaptation cemented its legacy.
* “Beloved,” by Toni Morrison (1987)
“The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life,” by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray (1994)
Herrnstein and Murray offered validation for Americans raging about pathological blacks and crime, welfare, and affirmative action. “Inequality of endowments, including intelligence, is a reality,” they wrote, sparking one of the most intense academic wars in history over whether genes or environment had caused the racial “achievement gap” in standardized test scores.
* “America in Black and White,” by Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom (1997)
“The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness,” by Michelle Alexander (2010)
Two years after Obama’s election, Alexander put the entire criminal justice system on trial, exposing racial discrimination from lawmaking to policing to the denial of voting rights to ex-prisoners. This best-seller struck the spark that would eventually light the fire of Black Lives Matter.
* “Dreams From My Father,” by Barack Obama (2004 reprint)
“ this history information is taken from THE NEW YORK TIMES news site.”
Disputes between black and white people
To measure perceptions of social conflict, a total of 1,815 persons age 16 and older were interviewed July 20-Aug. 2, 2009. Respondents were asked in separate questions “In all countries, there are differences or conflicts between different social groups. In your opinion, in America, how much conflict is there between…” blacks and whites, the poor and the rich, young people and older people, and immigrants and people born in the United States. Respondents were then given these answer options: “very strong conflicts, strong conflicts, not very strong conflicts, there are no conflicts” for each domain. Disagreements between immigrants and native-born Americans emerge as the most prevalent and serious type of social conflict among those tested in the survey. A clear majority (55%) of adults say there are “very strong” or “strong” conflicts between these groups, including 18% who say there are “very strong” conflicts and 37% who describe them as “strong.”
Hispanics, in particular, see serious clashes between these groups: nearly seven-in-ten (68%) say there are major conflicts between immigrants and the native-born, a view shared by half of the whites (53%) and six-in-ten the blacks (61%).
The survey found some notable demographic patterns in the public’s perceptions of social conflicts. Blacks, Hispanics, and women are significantly more likely than whites and men to say major conflicts exist between groups in at least three of the four areas tested in the survey. Blacks, in particular, consistently see more social conflict than do other demographic groups. But not even blacks believe that racial conflict is the most prevalent kind of conflict in the country today. A bare majority of blacks (53%) say there are “very strong/ strong” conflicts between blacks and whites. At the same time, nearly two-thirds of blacks (65%) say there are significant conflicts between the rich and poor, and 61% say there are significant conflicts between immigrants and the native-born. Blacks also are twice as likely as whites to see major generational conflicts (42% vs. 21%). The pattern is mixed among other groups. Older adults are significantly less likely than younger people to see strong conflicts between immigrants and native-born and between the rich and the poor, but just as likely to see serious generational differences and racial disputes.
Similarly, half of all Democrats (46%) but a only third of Republicans (33%) say there are serious conflicts between blacks and whites. The partisan perceptions gap is even bigger on perceptions of conflicts between the rich and poor: a 55% majority of Democrats see very serious or serious conflicts between the haves- and have-nots, compared with 38% of Republicans. At the same time, there is no significant difference by party affiliation in perceptions about conflicts between immigrants and native-born or between the generations.
Systems based on white family prototypes automatically exclude African American families that do not have the characteristics of the white family that is proffered as the model family. A more appropriate system would reflect the cultural values of people of color and their divergent social and physical environments. Thus, mediators should tailor mediation sessions to African American family functioning following normative behavior in other African American families instead of relying upon inappropriate white family norms. In America, this is the ancient culture where white family people do not conclude to the black family people.
THE GEORGE FLOYD’S CASE
In recently may 25,2020 in America a man George Floyd was killed by 4 police officers in front of his shop.
The 46-year-old man died Monday night after an officer held him pinned to the ground with a knee on his neck.
The encounter began Monday around 8 p.m. when an employee at the Cup Foods convenience store called police to say that a customer later identified as Floyd had tried to use a counterfeit $20 bill to buy cigarettes.
Surveillance video from a restaurant shows the initial encounter between Floyd and two officers, Thomas Lane and J.A. Kueng.
When the police arrived at Cup Foods, Floyd and his two companions were still there, in an SUV parked across from the store. Lane and Kueng speak to them, and then Floyd, in the driver’s seat, is taken into custody and handcuffed.
A police statement said it is at this point that Floyd “physically resisted an officer.”
Specifically, as cited by the Hennepin County district attorney’s office in the criminal complaint concerning Floyd’s death: “Officer Lane ordered Mr. Floyd out of the car, put his hands on Mr. Floyd, and pulled him out of the car. Officer Lane handcuffed Mr. Floyd. Mr. Floyd actively resisted being handcuffed. Once handcuffed, Mr. Floyd became compliant and walked with Officer Lane to the sidewalk and sat on the ground at Officer Lane’s direction.”
The handcuffing is largely hidden from the camera’s view by the SUV. At one point, Floyd seems to stumble or drop to the ground, and the officer pulls him back to his feet. Lane’s reaction does not indicate alarm; Kueng turns and looks at them briefly and does not offer aid to his partner.
At 6-foot-6 and with an athletic build, Floyd — who worked as a bouncer and a truck driver — towers over the officers.
The officers have Floyd sit on the sidewalk for a short time, then walk him across the street to where their squad car is parked, along with that of two other officers who had recently arrived.
The video was released by Rashad West, owner of Dragon Wok restaurant. He told CNN that he “did not see any resistance, not at all.” There is no audio; Floyd’s facial expression can be read as distressed, but he does not appear to be yelling or acting aggressively.
Cup Foods owner Mahmoud Abumayyaleh says video from his store also shows Floyd was not resisting officers. He said authorities have asked him not to release the video.
The surveillance video does not show what happened across the street, where the officers asked Floyd to get in the squad car. The district attorney’s report cites the account given by police: “Mr. Floyd did not voluntarily get in the car and struggled with the officers by intentionally falling, saying he was not going in the car, and refusing to stand still.”
Floyd ended up pinned to the ground by Officer Derek Chauvin.
In the bystanders’ video, Floyd complains of pain and of not being able to breathe as Chauvin keeps a knee on his neck. Onlookers are heard urging Chauvin to let him up.
Floyd then goes silent. Police said in their statement this week that officers “noted (Floyd) appeared to be suffering medical distress” and called an ambulance. He was declared dead at a hospital a short time later.
A medics team that responded to the incident worked on an “unresponsive, pulseless male,” according to a Minneapolis Fire Department narrative released by police.
The Minneapolis Park Police, whose officers assisted at the scene, has released a redacted bodycam video. Most of it takes place after Floyd has been taken away by the officers from the city force. At the end of it, the unidentified park officer tells Floyd’s two companions, “Just stay put, all right, until my partners and they are done over there and they can figure things out. We’ll figure things out all right. Right now, we’re grabbing an ambulance for your buddy.”
After that black lives matter turns hashtag into a movement.
After this incident, black lives matter turns into one biggest movement. In America, all black people especially was in the anger stage and they want to justice for George Floyd because it’s all about the racism in America only because they people have black colour and American white people hate them so they kill them and there are no laws to protect those black people. This is the movement that all the people live in America wants to better protect the living environment especially African Americans people.
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